Dutch Steyr-Hembrug 1895

Like everyone else in Europe the development of the Lebel caused the Dutch to look at developing a new rifle, but a study would have to be undertaken and that would take time.  Starting in 1886 and continuing until 1894 when a contract with Oesterreichische Waffenfabriks Gesellschaft in Steyr was finalized, for 47,000 pieces.  The new rifle would be called the M95.

In 1892 the Dutch State Arsenal had been given the task of using the design of the trials rifle to design a carbine and by 1896 it had been adopted (#1).  Followed by several other models for Military Police (#2), Engineer and Artillery (#3), and then the Military bicycle mounted troops( #4).

WWI came along and the Dutch stayed neutral but it became obvious for the need to make the carbine parts more interchangeable.  The New Models are a result of this.

No 1 O.M. Cavalry, used from 1900, production 8,000
No 1 N.M. Cavalry, later artillery as well. 1918, prod. 18,000.
No 2 O.M. Marechaussee, 1896, prod. 1,800
No 2 N.M. Civil Field police and Marechaussee, 1918, prod. 10,000.
No 3 O.M. Engineer-, pontoneer- and torpedoing troops, later also for fortification- and armored fortress artillery.  Since 1896, prod. 66,000
No 3 N.M. same users as No 3 O.M. Since 1918, prod. 24,000. A part of these carbines were transformed to the model No 3 Gewijzigd Model (Transformed model) and No 4.
No 3 G.M. (Transformed model) used by signaling troops since 1932, prod. 4,600
No 4 O.M. All military cyclists (Infantry and cavalry as well), since 1909, prod. 18,000.
No 4 N.M. All military cyclists, although these were few! prod. Not more than 600, since 1918.
No 5. War production, made from rifles.
Destination Motorized artillery and Antiaircraft guns. prod. 36,000.

Rifles of the Colonial Army

The Dutch Royal Army and the Colonial Army differed in their needs and in 1896 an order was placed for 36,000 Colonial rifles to suit their requirements. The rifles were delivered in 1897 and then problems started because they were so heavy and cumbersome.  The Cavalry model carbine was first to be introduced and other models were adopted between 1898 and 1945.  In all there were 5 carbine models used by the Colonial Army.

Karabijn M95 cavalerie- there were about 10,000 produced.  No hand guard was used.  This gun had a brass unit tag where the blonde insert is.

Karabijn M95 Marechaussee - Military special forces-  The Marechausse first adopted the cavalry carbine but then modified it for infantry use, Production about 28,000.  No hand guard.

Karabijn M95 artillerie- adopted in 1904, production about 3500

Karabijn m95 genie- Engineer- adopted in 1917, production about 1000

Dutch rifles and carbines were converted in Indo China to 7.7 or 303 British during the 50's and are in many forms some with flash suppressors.  We think that some were converted in Japan also, as the mark below, on one, is Japanese Kanji.  Translated it means Weapons Arsenal.

Carbines of the Royal Navy

The Navy was first issued rifles but in the thirties they decided to modify them into carbines.  Adopted in 1939, the carbine had a protected front sight much like the K98az, production was about 2500.

Reference books for the M95
Mannlicher Rifles and Pistols by Smith
The Dutch Mannlicher M95 and the 6.5x53.5R Cartridge  by the  N.V.B.M.B. of The Netherlands.  Written in Dutch and English

Corporal of Police troops
carrying the M95 with two piece sling
original photo is in the
 Institute for Military History in the Hague

Carbines for Collectors