- Cliff Carlisle photo
The Portuguese began
modifying their Kropatscheks in 1889 by adding a hand guard. The
modified rifles being the Mo.886/89. Not all Kropatscheks were
modified. These rifles were already obsolete as they fired black
powder cartridges and since 1886 a revolution was underway with smokeless
powder. France, then Germany and others had adopted new smokeless
powder rifles. Steyr had come up with a new smokeless powder Model
1890 Mannlicher Rifle and was converting its recently made Model 1888 Mannlichers
to smokeless powder Model 1888/90 models. Steyr developed a conversion
for Portugal. A new smokeless 8x60mmR round and modified rear sight
for the Kropatschek and the conversion work was undertaken at Lisbon Arsenal
(Arsenal do Exército). Steyr supplied the sights and an Austrian
firm the first smokeless ammo. The date the conversions began is
unknown, but they were probably completed sometime in 1896.
By 1896 Portugal
realized that the Kropatschek belonged to the past. It purchased
a quantity of turnbolt 6.5x53mmR Mo.896 Rifles from Steyr, which were based
on the M1893 Romanian Mannlicher made at Steyr and were virtually identical
to the new Dutch Model 1895 Mannlichers. I can no longer remember
the exact numbers. but my best recollection is that they bought about 2500
long rifles and 500 carbines. These may have been used by the Navy.
Some of the Mo.886 Kropatschek carbines were experimentally converted to
this 6.5x53mmR cartridge for evaluation purposes.
In 1900, the Army
was looking for a new rifle. All the currently available types were
considered, but in 1902 trials were held among the leading contenders and
a new Mannlicher from Steyr, using a rimless 6.5x53mm round was adjudged
the best. One thousand rifles were purchased for extended trials
by troops in the field. Ultimately, it was decided that this rifle,
with its rotary spool Spitalsky magazine, was too expensive. Money
was very tight.
Circa 1903, used
surplus M1871 Mauser 11mm Rifles were purchased and cut down and rebarreled
to 8x60mmR black powder short carbines for use by native constabulary in
the African colonies. There were large stocks of black powder ammo
for these and existing obsolete Sniders in service in very bad shape.
The Germans also used the M71 in its original 11mm configuration to arm
its African colonial troops right through WW1.
At this time, development
of a Portuguese designed rifle by a Captain Vergueiro of the Army was underway.
This was done so as to avoid payment of royalties to foreign patent holders
for features of the Mannlicher Schonauer and Mauser rifles. The bolt
of the Mannlicher Schonauer was the basis for developing this new action.
Several improvements were evolved, but the action is a derivative of the
Steyr Mannlicher which was adopted by Greece as the Model 1903. The
design was perfected, but as Portugal was lacking production facilities
to produce this rifle, arrangements were made with DWM in Germany for the
production of this design. Vergueiro went to Berlin and worked
with DWM engineers to engineer the details of the final pattern which included
many Mauser features such as the magazine, the bands, sights, bolt release/ejector
and bayonet with its mounting lug. This was the Model 1904 or M904
adopted by Portugal.
in 1904. The Portuguese liked the 6.5x53mm round, and decided to
adopt the more powerful 6.5x58mm cartridge, which enjoyed excellent flat
shooting ballistics and outstanding penetration of targets. A hundred
thousand rifles were on order, but only about 75,000 were delivered due
to revolution and financial problems circa 1909. The Crest of King
Carlos or his short reigning successor, Manuel the Second, are found on
the chamber. Undelivered rifles were offered for commercial sale
in 1910 and 1911 through such firms as Alfa. Some 5,000 were completed
in 7x57mm for the Police of the Federal District of Rio De Janeiro, Brazil
in 1910. In 1915 as WW1 raged, the British arranged the transfer
of 20,000 M904 rifles and 12,000,000 rounds of 6.5x58mm ammunition from
Portugal to South Africa. When Portugal entered the war on March
10, 1916, it committed itself to supply a large force for the Western Front,
as well as, to fight the German forces in East and West Africa. The
rifles sent to South Africa were issued to the First, Second, Third and
Fifth Mounted Brigades in German South West Africa. The Germans resisting
there also used Vergueiros captured from the Portuguese in Angola against
the Empire forces in this campaign. These supplemented the M1871
11mm Mausers and M1888 7.92x57mm Commission Rifles which were in issue
to the Kaiser's colonial forces.
The Germans under
von Lettow Vorbeck in East Africa captured large amounts of arms and munitions
from the Portuguese when they invaded Mozambique. These included
Vergueiro Rifles, which he used these to good effect in his campaigns against
the Allies. Rifles of this type, lost in Africa, continued to be
held by farmers and homesteaders until the end of the European colonial
period in both East and West Africa as well as South Africa.
In the early sixties, some were imported from Kenya into the U.S.A.
Specimens were reported in Zimbabwe in the 1990's.
force sent to fight with the British on the Western Front in France were
supplied by the British and armed with S.M.L.E. Mk.111 and Mk111* .303
Enfields. They wore a British style helmet that is readily identified
because it has corrugations running from the rim up to the crown peak to
give it added strength without adding weight. The Vickers .303 Water
Cooled Machine Gun and the Lewis Gun, a light machine gun, in .303 was
also used. These weapons were used by Portugal post war and Portugal
actually produced copies of the Vickers Gun in .303 starting in 1930.
Portugal produced .303 ammunition into the 1950's and today produces it
The Portuguese army
never fell short of rifles during peacetime. The only episode that
called for special measures was the arming of the C.E.P. (Corpo Expedicionário
Português, Portuguese Expeditionary Force), which fought in the Western
Front during the Great War. The need was fulfilled by the British
who supplied huge numbers of S.M.L.E. Mk. III and Mk.III* rifles, plus
some P.14s. The British rifles served well after the wars end
and were very popular among soldiers and civilian shooters alike.
The short Lee-Enfield was the main infantry rifle during the inter-war
era and this can be easily confirmed by viewing period photos and newsreels.
The British small arms predominance inherited from Great War times only
waned after the big scale purchase of Mausers in the late 1930ís.
When the Army began
to receive their new German rifles, the British weapons were passed to
the Legião Portuguesa (Portuguese Legion), a fully armed and uniformed
paramilitary organization modeled after the Italian Black Skirts (or M.V.S.N.).
The S.M.L.E. remained listed as a regulation rifle in the Portuguese inventory
well into the 1950ís. The habit of not throwing away old rifles is
testified to in old manuals. In 1939, the Army printed a manual covering
infantry issue, first-line light weapons, where the venerable M.896 Kropatschek
is still included, amongst much more modern guns like the M.931 Vickers-Berthier
LMG (another proof of the importance of S.M.L.E. stocks Ė this machine-gun
was also ordered in .303) or the M.936 Steyr SMG, and alongside M.904 (still
in original 6,5x58mm calibre), M.917 (the official Portuguese designation
for the S.M.L.E.) and M.937 rifles. "
How many Enfield
Rifles were ultimately acquired is unknown. Portuguese troops ultimately
reached a force of 60,000 men and sustained over 15,000 casualties in the
course of the war. It is likely that somewhere around 50,000 Enfields
would have been required to arm this force. How many survived into
postwar service is not known, but as both Vickers and Madsen .303 MG's
were purchased postwar it is likely tens of thousands would not be an unreasonable
The condition of
Portugalís limited rifle supply, especially in the tropical colonies, declined
during the 1920's and 30's. When the Spanish Civil War began in mid
1936, it was obvious that the Army need rifles. Portugal recognized
the Spanish Nationalist Insurgents and facilitated passage of supplies
to that government. The first new rifles acquired were Standard Modell
7.92x57mm Mauser short rifles supplied from Mauser Werke in Germany from
stock. These had a hand guard extending from the receiver ring to
beyond the lower band, similar to the Mo.904 Vergueiro. A contract
was let for more rifles, which were identical with the Karabiner
98K used by the Wehrmact, except they had the new Portuguese Crest was
on the receiver ring. This was the M0.937. This was superseded
by a revised model, the Mo.937A, which had addition alsling swivels under
the lower band and butt and a front sight guard. Deliveries lasted
from 1937 to 1939.
In 1939, Portugal
began a program to rebuild the remaining stock of 6.5x58mm Mo.904 Vergueiro
Rifles into 7.92x57mm short rifles. This was an easy and inexpensive
conversion and it is likely the main reason that the 7.92x57mm Mauser was
selected for purchase a few years previously. The old rifles needed
no new parts to make them compatible with the new rifles and their cartridge.
Cost as always was a key factor.
" I always
had a soft spot for the M. 904/37 pattern converted Vergueiros. They
are quite unique rifles and show some interesting variations in blue and
wood finish that make for an exciting collecting field of its own.
The conversion job on the majority of remaining M. 904 6,5x58 rifles was
done by end of 1940. The work ranged from partial refurbishment up
to almost total rebuild. Iíve had the chance to inspect closely rifles
from different batches and I must say that, whilst the original furniture
was used in most, some converted guns were restocked anew using a light
coloured wood finished in a blonde hue, not dissimilar from the one seen
in some Nordic rifles. The wood finish in those rifles that retained
the old stocks can look somewhat crude in some cases, spotting an heavy
shellac coat. Rumour has it that these rifles were intended
for colonial duty(the varnish coating might have been done to protect walnut
against tropical climate), but I have no proof of this whatsoever.
All reworked rifles must show, as a norm, blued bolts. The
monogram of King Carlos I and the royal crown were retained on every reconditioned
On some examples, the original front barrel band was refinished in mid
grey phosphate. The reason for this separate treatment in a single
part remaining unknown. Usually, the blueing is of high quality,
with a distinctive slightly greenish tone. "
The conversion of
these rifles was carried out in this manner. The worn out, pitted
barrels of the 6.5mm Mo.904 rifles were removed from the receiver.
They would then face off 1 thread turn at the chamber end. They were
bored out to .321 and chambered for the 7.92x57mm. Rear sights were
adjusted, barrel was shortened and re-crowned, stocks had forends cut back
and existing lug and bands installed to match new configuration.
A new front sight guard was installed and rifles were reblued. A
stock bolt was added to strengthen the wood against splitting from heavy
After the out break
of WW2 in September 1939, Portugal attempted to buy more small arms, but
due to the war this was more difficult than before. Both the Germans
and British supplied various small arms, such as the Steyr Slothurn SMG
and the STEN Gun, in an attempt to influence events in this key Neutral.
In 1941, Mauser Werke was directed to divert standard Wehrmact contract
98K carbines in 7.92mm to Portugal. These had the new style crest
as used on the Mo.937 and were finished better than carbines going to German
troops. Deliveries continued for an unknown period and individual
carbines reflected changes made from time to time to speed production for
the Wehrmact. After mid 1944, carbines in German service began showing
up with Portuguese crested receivers, indicating these carbines could not
or would not be sent to Portugal due to conditions arising from defeats
on the battlefield.
Following WW2 large
numbers of 98k Mausers captured on the Western Front were reworked at the
FN factory in Belgium and sold to Nationalist China circa 1947. Some
of these Portuguese marked carbines were in this group.
" It is an
undeniable fact that Portugal joined NATO after World War II, but the Portuguese
Army never used American semiautomatic rifles, nor, for that matter any
other semiautomatic rifles from other sources. The .30 M1 Garand
and the handy .30 M1 carbine werenít used at all by the Portuguese armed
forces, who relied solely on bolt action Mausers until the advent of the
first G.3 and FALs, following the outburst of revolts in Angola in 1961
that eventually developed into war in 1961, and lasted until April
1974. I heard some rumours concerning trials with the Garand, but
nothing conclusive. Portugal and Spain were alone in this respect,
because there wasnít a transition phase between bolt actions and selective
fire, modern battle rifle. Greece, Holland, Denmark, Italy, etc,
all used the Garand masterpiece but we, in the Iberian Peninsulan never
tasted it, preferring to keep up the old proven Mausers until very late
During the period
of the wars in Africa , Hemburg built 7.62x51mm NATO AR-10 Armalite Rifles
were acquired from Holland as well as FN FAL 7.62x51mm Rifles from Belgium.
The AR-10 was the forerunner of the scaled down AR-15 5.56mm Rifle which
led to the M16 series of rifles so widely issued today by many countries.
Portugal and the Sudan were the only nations to use the AR-10 in any quantity.
These saw service in African wars.
In 1961, the Rheinmettal
licensed G3 Rifle, derived from the Spanish C.E.T.M.E. Rifle, was placed
in production for the West German Bundeswehr at the Fábrica Militar
de Braço de Prata in Portugal. Heckler and Koch took over
from Rheinmettal in Germany, but could not produce enough rifles fast enough
to meet the demand of the West German Government. This design was
brought to Spain from Germany after 1945, where it had originated as a
Mauser project in 7.92x33mm. German engineers working in Spain had developed
it into a very successful rifle.
this rifle as the Mo.961. When Germany upgraded to the G3A2, Portugal
switched to this as the Mo.963. Many variations of the G3 have
been produced in Portugal. All have been in 7.62x51mm. Portugal
tested several 5.56mm rifles in the 1970's, but none were adopted at that
time. "During the late 1960ís, while a fierce three front war was
being fought against Communist-inspired guerrillas in the African possessions
of Angola, Guinea and Mozambique, the conservative Portuguese regime arranged
a covert way to buy weapons and ammo from one of their archenemies from
behind the Iron Curtain, Czechoslovakia. The deal involved an unspecified
number of small arms and fair amounts of ammunition to feed them.
Of course, many Soviet Bloc guns were captured from the Freedom fighters,
mostly in Angola, and the array included substantial numbers of AKís assault
rifles, and some recent SKS of Chinese or Russian manufacture, but the
bulk of these captures was formed by older guns, namely rifles from World
War II or even earlier vintage, from mixed provenances. The Portuguese
commandos favoured the AK for their special purpose operations, some of
which occurred well beyond enemy lines and even outside the borders of
Portuguese held territories. At first, captured AKís were used,
but it highly possible that further on during the conflict newly purchased
guns from Czechoslovakia might have been issued on a limited scale.
No guns of this type were purchased or issued after the 1974 military coup
which overthrew the government. The ensuing provisory governments
were socialist, but the country never left Western institutions, like NATO
As for 5,56mm rifles
testing, the Army and Navy tested extensively the M16 during the 1980ís.
Normal order returned soon and in the eighties Portugal joined the E.E.C.
The Portuguese military has clung to their trusted G.3 rifles to this day.
Produced in indigenous facilities in fairly large numbers, the old soldier
is now destined to be replaced very soon by a well known Austrian bullpup
design, although the Swiss SiG family has attracted the attention of the
Portuguese Army, who favours conventional configuration. The new
German G.36 rifle, already adopted by neighbouring Spain, may be another
serious candidate. Letís see what happens."